Since learning grammar dramas such an of import portion in linguistic communication schoolroom, it is necessary to cognize what are the attacks to learn grammar every bit good as the most effectual procedure of keeping a grammar lesson. It is because this will assist scholars analyze grammar more efficaciously.
About the instruction attack, there are two chief types mentioned which are the inductive and deductive 1. In deductive, the regulation is presented foremost and the linguistic communication is produced based on the regulation. On the contrary, in inductive, teacher will give pupils a agency to detect the regulations themselves. Both of these attacks have advantages and disadvantages. Deductive attack will salvage clip for instructor and be suited for immature scholars, whereas the inductive 1 will be appropriate for scholars with basic cognition of the linguistic communication.
About be aftering a grammar lesson in schoolroom, there are several popular theoretical accounts a instructor should cognize, for illustration: the deductive PPP ( Presentation, Practice, Production ) , TTT ( Test, Teach, Test ) , ARC ( Authentic usage, Restricted usage, Clarification and focal point ) , TBL ( Task-Based Learning ) and ESA ( Engage, Study, Activate ) . All theoretical accounts have their ain good points and bad points. Among them, PPP is the most widely used theoretical account because this theoretical account is easy to carry on and can be suited for learning stray grammatical points. It besides allows the instructor to set up the clip for each phase accurately and fix for the unexpected jobs that may happen. ( BBC, 2005 December 9 )
Teaching grammar in PPP includes three chief phases: presentation, pattern and production.
Presentation: This phase includes lead-in, showing signifier and significance, giving other illustrations, carry oning repeat of rubric, theoretical account sentences and illustrations, and eventually inquiring category to copy down lesson.
The instructor normally begins showing with a text in which the grammatical construction appears. The text possibly one or two sentences, or it can be a short duologue. The instructor may besides utilize images or state of affairss to take into the construction that will be taught. The intent of lead-in subdivision is to warm up and raise students’interest in the lesson. Throught it, pupils will cognize how the construction is used of course in existent life.
Showing signifier and significance:
In this subdivision, the instructor may get down demoing the signifier foremost and the pregnant second or frailty versa. This depends on the pupils. If pupils prefer grammar accounts at the beginning, the signifier should be presented foremost. On the contrary, if pupils learn a linguistic communication better by deducing the significance before the instructor presents grammar account, so demoing the significance foremost is suited for them. ( Dang and Ruiter, 2005, p.86 )
Whether the signifier of the grammar point or its significance is presented foremost, the instructor should get the hang the ways of demoing signifier and significance.
Doff ( 1988 ) mentioned these ways in his book. When showing significance, the instructor can demo it visually or through a state of affairs. In demoing intending visually, he or she can utilize objects, the schoolroom, the pupils themselves, the images to show the new construction ( p.34 ) . However, it is non ever possible to demo the significance visually. Hence there is another manner of demoing intending more of course. It is showing intending through a state of affairs. “ This state of affairs can be existent or fanciful ” ( p.35 ) . The good point of utilizing a state of affairs is that pupils can go familiar with how the construction is used in mundane conversations. They will experience what they are larning is relevant to existent life, and it is besides easier for the instructor to utilize this manner.
Together with explicating clearly the significance of the new construction, it is besides of import to demo how it is formed. Doff ( 1988 ) showed two basic ways of making this. First, a clear theoretical account should be given and pupils are asked to listen and reiterate two or three times and so the instructor demonstrates the construction rapidly. Second, the instructor writes the construction on the board, says it when composing and underlines the fixed parts. Another manner is inquiring the pupils to state the instructor what to compose. It is an effectual manner because it involves the whole category in the lesson and focuses their attending to the construction. ( p.37 )
After the instructor has finished showing signifier and significance, he or she continue making other stairss such as: giving other illustrations, patterning the construction and illustrations, and eventually inquiring category to copy down lesson.
When pupils have known the grammatical construction, it is neccessary to acquire them to state the new linguistic communication accurately and fluently. Therefore, it is of import to travel to pattern phase. The procedure will travel from controlled pattern ( mechanical ) to less controlled pattern ( meaningful ) and eventually to liberate pattern ( production ) .
Controlled or mechanical pattern
In this subdivision, scholars are frequently asked to make mechanical drills such as repeat, permutation, word cues, image cues… etc. These drills wholly control the response of pupils. They are asked to give the lone one right manner of reacting because these sorts of drills merely concentrate on right signifiers instead than intending. Therefore, mechanical drills are merely utile if pupils practise making them for a short clip.
This sort of pattern has some restrictions due to these three grounds. First, because pupils do non hold to believe much when making mechanical drills, they will easy bury afterwards. Second, instructor can non be certain that whether pupils understand the significance of the words or non. Finally, these drills focus merely on bring forthing right signifiers, therefore pupils do non cognize how to utilize them to show significance. ( Doff, 1988, p.73 )
Meaningful pattern is besides called less controlled pattern because there is still small control of response. Less control is because pupils can give several right replies and these drills are non suited for making chorally. This is called meaningful pattern because it requires scholars to believe and understand what they are making. Some common drills are information spread exercising, mapped duologue, interview or happen person who… etc.
There are three techniques to do meaningful pattern: First, instructor can make this by acquiring pupils to state existent thing about themselves, or teacher can give a state of affairs that implies the construction but allow pupil make up one’s mind what to state. Besides, teacher can allow pupils add something of their ain ( Doff, 1988, p.75-76 )
In this phase, in both mechanical and meaningful pattern, instructor should look into whether sudents make any mistakes or non so that instructor goes back to the presentation phase and clarifies any jobs of understanding or use.
Meaningful pattern is followed by production ( free pattern ) in which pupils have a opportunity to utilize the strutures to show their ain thoughts or speak about their experiences. There are two sorts of utile subjects. Harmonizing to Doff ( 1988 ) , pupils can speak about existent life, for illustration themselves, friends or anything in the universe. They can besides conceive of a state of affairs which is non existent to rehearse speech production ( p.78 ) . In this subdivision, function drama and communicative games are frequently used. Free pattern offers pupils a opportunity to speak freely ; hence, it is in this phases that mistakes frequently occur. Nevertheless, instructors should non interupt pupils to rectify their errors because the chief intent is to develop eloquence and assurance. Important mistakes can be corrected during giving feedback after this phase.
Although PPP theoretical account is widely used, it is going antique presents and is under menace to be replaced by other 1s. There are a figure of grounds for this which Mora et Al. ( 2001 ) pointed out in their book. For one, PPP will “ deter risk-taking and the procedures of improvisation and experimentation with the linguistic communication ” , which are considered as of import facets of linguistic communication acquisition. For another, the controlled context in present and pattern phase does small aid for pupils when covering with the natural linguistic communication outside the classroom. ( p.14 ) . Another job is that in PPP, the grammatical constructions which are frequently chosen in progress by the class book writer or the instructor may non be what pupils like to larn. Hence, pupils may non experience excited in the lesson ; and if they do non desire to larn that grammar point, the whole lesson can be a waste of clip. Besides, when it comes to more complex grammar points, it will be a challenge for instructor to utilize this theoretical account. These are all the grounds why other theoretical accounts are considered to use in schoolrooms alternatively of PPP.