Computers presents provide great aid to linguists, particularly if we are to believe of text use techniques: big storage, speedy hunt and retrieval every bit good as networked communicating. As a consequence, the manners and efficiency of text processing, linguistic communication acquisition and interlingual rendition can be greatly improved. Particularly the being of extended electronic principal offers illustrations and generalizations of linguistic communication uses, which in bend will lend to better linguistic communication instruction and bring forth high-quality interlingual rendition. Electronic tools such as lexicons, concordancers, encyclopedias and Web page hunt engines offer instant returns to enquiries about word or phrase uses. Second, upgraded machine interlingual rendition engineering has turned into a helpful tool, non merely to concern and industry, but besides for transcribers and linguistic communication scholars. We can therefore state that the machine-aided interlingual rendition engineering besides has good effects both on interlingual rendition and on linguistic communication acquisition.
Different computing machine plans, uniting the features of human intelligence in supplying counsel with the machine capacities to pull off resources and work out undertakings, have the potency to go good helpers for transcribers and linguistic communication users and scholars in the hereafter. Nowadays pedagogues ‘ demands in linguistic communication and interlingual rendition instruction can non be met without pointing the classs and the course of study in the same way as the new computing machine epoch takes us in all other facets of life. I will in the undermentioned brand a short presentation of computing machines ‘ benefits to interlingual rendition and linguistic communication acquisition, from the transcriber ‘s workstation to the interlingual rendition memory applications, the machine interlingual rendition engineering and computing machine assisted linguistic communication larning. I will seek to analyze the interrelation of constructs such as translating, linguistic communication acquisition and the function the computing machine can play in this environment.
The world of modern times is such that a transcriber does non hold to travel to the library to happen mention stuffs any more: a computing machine with Internet entree can supply replies to the bulk of inquiries originating in the interlingual rendition procedure. Among the mention tools readily available on the Internet or on different specialised package reference should be made of: electronic lexicons, nomenclature Bankss, encyclopedias, concordancers, collocation finders, Web hunt engines, etc. All these tools contribute to the creative activity of a computerised working environment, which has been traditionally called the transcriber ‘s workstation ( Melby, 1992 ; Hutchins, 1997 ; Freigang, 1998 ) or the transcriber ‘s work bench ( Trujillo, 1999 ) .
Harmonizing to Melby ( 1992 ) there are three degrees of maps for a transcriber workstation. Level one maps comprise word processing, nomenclature direction and telecommunications. Level two maps consist of text analysis, automatic dictionary look-up, and synchronized bilingual text retrieval. Level three “ provides an interface to machine interlingual rendition systems ” .
We have all encountered and are familiar with the usage of electronic lexicons, encyclopedias and bilingual nomenclature files at the lower degrees ; therefore we will non pass excessively much clip on this facet. A less obvious tool, but likewise helpful for the novice transcriber is the Web hunt engine. For illustration, in trying to interpret the look Bakugan conflict brawlers into Rumanian, the Rumanian equivalent may non be found in the lexicon or in a nomenclature bank. The transcriber may cognize what the word means, but it is another thing to interpret it into Rumanian, because an established interlingual rendition could be which the transcriber may non cognize.
( 1 ) Bakugan Battle Brawlers are action-figure warriors, that are tucked into domains that pop unfastened when they ‘re rolled onto a game card, where they gather points.
The definition we can happen on TheFreeDictionary is brawl intr.v. brawled, wrangling, brawls 1. To dispute or contend noisily. 2. To flux noisily, as H2O ; brawler n. a combatant ( particularly one who participates in bash ) . It stands to ground that a warrior bash in a conflict.
In such instances it is utile to fall back to a localized Web hunt engine like Google Romania, which can assist recover relevant national Web pages with the recognized interlingual renditions for the term we need.
( 1 ) LuptA?torii Bakugan sunt statuette ascunse in sfere care explodeazA? atunci cand sunt aruncate pe cA?rA?ile de joc, unde acumuleazA? puncte.
Level two maps include text analysis which includes largely the tool of concordancers ( Melby 1992 ) . A concordancer is utile to the transcriber chiefly in the mark linguistic communication sphere, as it chiefly assists the transcriber in the procedures of rendering mark texts ( as opposed to understanding the beginning texts ) . The concordancer can seek a big native-speaker principal and happen lines of texts incorporating the question word whose use the transcriber, as a non- native talker, is diffident about. The harmony lines provide the transcriber with a set of contexts that the mark word is used in so that she can be more certain about how to incorporate the word in her ain sentence. For illustration, say our undertaking is to interpret the Rumanian fragment in ( 2 ) .
( 2 ) DacA? in strA?inA?tate cerAYim de foame, acasA? am ajuns sA? “ negociem ” copper marile companii blare domeniul petrolului de frica frigului. Azi asta pentru cA? guvernanA?ii s-au trezit in Prague de iarnA? surprinAYi de avalanAYa preA?urilor La gazele naturale, attention tinde sA? ingroape speranA?ele multora dintre romani de a trece copper common hop peste sezonul rece.
In the followers there is a ‘literal ‘ interlingual rendition of the transition above, which does n’t look to sound good, at least to a native talker.
( 2 ‘ ) If abroad we beg of hungriness, at place we ‘ve come to “ negociate ” with the large companies in the oil field for fright of cold. And this because governors woke up at the beginning of winter surprised by the avalanche of monetary values for natural gases which tends to bury the hopes of many Romanians to acquire good over the cold season.
First of wholly, the actual interlingual rendition of aˆzcerAYim de foame ” – “ we beg of hungriness ” may sound awkward, and the transcriber may desire to look into in a concordancer based on big principal how the verb ‘to beg ‘ is used by native talkers. The followers is a snapshop of the BNC end product:
Fig. 1. Snapshop of ‘beg ‘ harmonies
As can be seen from the above choice, the phrase ‘having to implore for nutrient ‘ is used in a similar context, mentioning to famishment and poorness. Conversely, the phrase ‘governors woke up at the beginning of winter surprised by the avalanche of monetary values for natural gases ‘ does non look to sound excessively native-like. A simple hunt through the BNC principal would return more natural associations: ‘surprised to find/see ‘ .
Fig. 2 Snaposhot of ‘surprised ‘ harmonies
Furthermore, the look ‘avalanche of monetary values ‘ demands betterment excessively. Our hunt through a concordancer would return the collocation ‘soaring monetary values ‘ , which would retain the significance in Rumanian, and would at the same clip sound more appropriate.
Fig. 3 Snaposhot of ‘prices ‘ harmonies
The same scheme may be applied for all the word associations which seem awkward-sounding. We have non included all snaphots of the concordancers we have used, but the concluding alteration of the translated text would instead look as in the followers:
( 2 ” ) If abroad we beg for nutrient, at place we ‘ve come to “ negociate ” with the large companies in the oil field for fright of cold. And this is because at the beginning of winter our governors were surprised to see the surging monetary values of natural gases, which tend to crush/kill off the hopes of many Romanians to successfully defy the cold season.
Another level-two map in Melby ‘s frame of a transcriber workstation may be what he dubs the ‘synchronized retrieval ‘ of bilingual text files. A widely accepted modern-day term for this procedure is the ‘translation memory ‘ , which is much more complicated than what we have covered before and hence would merit particular attending in another context.
Harmonizing to Hutchins ( 1997 ) , translation memory represents a installation which “ enables the storage of and entree to bing interlingual renditions for subsequently ( partial ) reuse or alteration or as beginnings of illustration interlingual renditions ” . In his sentiment, “ the gross revenues of transcriber workstations integrating interlingual rendition memories are increasing quickly, peculiarly in Europe ” . On the other manus, in Asia, some interlingual rendition companies besides advertise the usage of interlingual rendition memory package as a utile tool on their Web pages. The practical value of interlingual rendition memory package to transcribers is proved by its global usage, particularly by international endeavors, free-lance transcribers and interlingual rendition companies.
One illustration of modern interlingual rendition memory package is the TRADOS Translator ‘s Workbench, normally has the undermentioned faculties:
– Translation memory
– Terminology direction
– Sentence alliance
The interlingual rendition memory faculty will enter the user ‘s interlingual renditions sentence by sentence in a interlingual rendition memory file. It besides has a fuzzy-match algorithm which H will seek the memory to happen any ( partial ) lucifer for a new beginning sentence and recover the corresponding mark sentence for the transcriber to analyze. In contrast, the nomenclature direction faculty will maintain a bilingual nomenclature bank and, upon the activation of a beginning sentence, will seek and recover the mark linguistic communication parts of any footings that exist both in the beginning sentence and in the database. Finally, the sentence alliance faculty will enable the transcriber to import an bing piece of interlingual rendition ( from a beginning text file and a corresponding mark text file ) that has non been antecedently treated by the interlingual rendition memory faculty, and align the beginning texts with the mark text on a sentence-to-sentence footing. The consequences of the alliance can so be exported to a interlingual rendition memory file in order to heighten its contents.
The usage of such package means that several transcribers working together can pool all their interlingual rendition texts and footings together, including those from the present and the past, in the signifier of interlingual rendition memory files and nomenclature database files. In this manner, the undertakings of interlingual rendition and care will be easier and more efficient, while the interlingual rendition of nomenclature and repeating forms will be more consistent across individuals and administrations.
Machine interlingual rendition
The history of machine interlingual rendition ( MT ) has been instead contradictory since its beginning in the 1940 ‘s ( Hutchins, 1995 ; Somers, 1998b ) , from the following positions:
– the methodological analysis it has used: from the direct interlingual rendition method to the transportation method, the Interlingua method, to the more recent corpus-based method ( see Somers, 1998b, Arnold et al. , 1994 ; Trujillo, 1999 ) ;
– the outlooks of MT: from FAHQMT ( to the full automatic high-quality MT ) , to no chance at all in the late 1960 ‘s, to the current limited and realistic ends and outlooks ( see Hutchins, 1999 ) ; and besides
– the platforms and users for MT: from the interlingual rendition companies ‘ desktops to the real-time Internet service for the general populace ( Yang & A ; Lange, 1998 ) to its possible functions in the fully-fledged “ teletranslation industry ” conceived by O’Hagan ( 1996 ) .
Research workers in MT have underlined that the success of MT depends on the limitations of the sphere, the input, the readers and intents, and the linguistic communication brace used ( Hutchins, 1995, 1999 ; Somers, 1998a ; O’Hagan, 1996: 26-35 ; Manning & A ; Schutze, 1999: 463 ) .
Research into MT from Romanian into English and frailty versa is still in its inchoate phases. Free interlingual rendition package is at the same clip inefficient. Let us see a portion of the infusion we analysed above:
DacA? in strA?inA?tate cerAYim de foame, acasA? am ajuns sA? “ negociem ” copper marile companii blare domeniul petrolului de frica frigului.
The Google Translate installation ( A©2009 Google ) will supply the undermentioned interlingual rendition:
If abroad imploring hungriness at place have come to “ negociate ” with large oil companies in the field of cold fright.
As can be seen, some jobs are to be found at grammatical degree. First, in Rumanian we do n’t normally show the topic when this is a pronoun, as it is inexplicit in the verb terminations ( ‘cerAYim de foame ‘ = noi cerAYim de foame ; ‘am ajuns ‘ = noi am ajuns — 2nd individual sg. ) . However, the interlingual rendition in itself is a faulty one, and does non convey any significance whatsoever. The combination ‘in the field of cold fright ‘ is screaming, to state the least. Interestingly plenty, the thought of oil companies was rendered, although the plants field was preserved and wrongly associated with the undermentioned semantic unit.
Fig. 4 Google Translate interlingual rendition
Although in the hereafter MT will play a more and more of import function in lingual services, it will decidedly non replace human transcribers in the foreseeable hereafter. Harmonizing to specializers, automatic interlingual rendition can non, unaided, produce anything better than ‘rough ‘ ( on occasion hardly comprehendible ) ‘translations ‘ ( see above ) . In order to acquire higher ( publishable ) quality, the solution will stay with human transcribers, aided by all the computing machine AIDSs that are appropriate ( Hutchins, 1998 ) .
O’Hagan portions the same position, sing that “ users are recognizing the possible benefits of MT and are get downing to do usage of the engineering within restricted environments ” ( 1996: 35 ) .
This is to state that MT “ must no longer be put frontward as a ‘solution ‘ to people ‘s interlingual rendition demands, but it must be seen as no more than a ‘useful assistance ‘ ” ( Hutchins, 1999 ) .
Increasingly, non merely is MT used by the general populace for airing ( of information ) , communicating, amusement and linguistic communication acquisition intents ( Yang & A ; Lange, 1998 ) , it is besides used by interlingual rendition professionals. It does n’t come as a surprise that pupils besides find that MT can assist them make their foreign linguistic communication prep. Furthermore, even for a linguistic communication instructor, MT can go a utile instruction assistance excessively. One utile exercising would be for the instructor to utilize the faulty interlingual rendition provided above and have the pupils correct it and happen accounts for why the machine has generated such
If we consider all the educational and translational engineering AIDSs mentioned above, it appears that we can happen Bridgess between computing machines, interlingual rendition and linguistic communication acquisition. We have seen how interlingual rendition can be combined with computing machines in the execution of a transcriber ‘s workstation. We have besides seen how see linguistic communication acquisition can be integrated with a computing machine system in the CALL environment. What is more, the possible combination of interlingual rendition ( particularly interpreting into L2 ) and linguistic communication acquisition is besides strongly implied from the general working environment linguistic communication scholars and trainee transcribers portion ( i.e. both benefit greatly from the usage of computing machines ) , the tools and resources they use ( e.g. concordancers and principal ) and their common end of interaction ( i.e. to bring forth high-quality written linguistic communication, near to native talkers ‘ proficiency ) .
Therefore, we would wish to propose that interpreting into L2 and L2 larning activities should be carried out in an integrated computerised environment and both will profit double as a consequence of common support and other factors such as varied resources and increased involvement.