The accomplishments developed in the procedure of larning a linguistic communication are: hearing, reading, composing and speech production. Some writers defend the thought that there is a 5th accomplishment: “ speaking ” ( unwritten interaction accomplishment ) but in this thesis the accomplishment “ speaking ” is considered as a portion of the accomplishment “ speech production ” . Harmonizing to Alcaraz Varo ( 1992 ) the cardinal accomplishments are talking and listening and the 2nd 1s are reading and composing.
Listening is the capacity of hearing and understanding what you are listening to. There is a distinction between listening and hearing. Listening is to set attending and to understand what person is hearing. Hearing is merely to comprehend sound. It is non necessary to set attending about what are you listening to.
Reading consists of associating the phonemes with characters. Reading is the procedure of decrypting symbols in order to build significance. It is a mean of linguistic communication acquisition of communicating, and of sharing information and thoughts.
Writing is the representation of linguistic communication in a textual medium through the usage of a set of marks or symbols ( known as a authorship system ) . To compose is to make significance in a printed manner.
Alcaraz Varo ( 1992 ) defends that authorship is the most hard accomplishment because there are tonss of constituents: phoneme-grapheme, plurals, feminine nouns, irregular verbs…
Speaking is a productive accomplishment because it is focused on the capacity of doing words. Those words have to be understood by the hearers. A good talker is clear and enlightening.
In recent times, EFL instructors have recognized “ speaking ” like a new accomplishment, indicating out the value of this accomplishment in the teaching-learning procedure. Teachers make a distinction between speech production and speaking because speech production is merely to state sentences but speaking is to talk and to understand at the same clip. Research workers say that thanks to this fifth skill a conversation or duologue will hold success or non. They remark that communicative competency is the end of most EFL schoolroom.
Brown ( 2000 ) affirms that thanks to eloquence and a good use of the linguistic communication in existent contexts, communicative aims are best achieved. Some people who study English like a 2nd linguistic communication affirm that developing the fifth accomplishment should be one of their primary ends of survey.
Edelenbos and Vinje ( 2000 ) remark the value of communicative linguistic communication instruction, explicating that the English topic in the schools in the Netherlands is taught with an accent on communicating. Students have to larn the different accomplishments of English linguistic communication, non merely grammar.
2.4. Teaching methods in the learning-teaching procedure of English linguistic communication
Different learning methods have been based in the acquisition learning procedure of a foreign linguistic communication. There are:
2.4.1. Grammar-Translation Method: The Classical Method
2.4.2. Direct Method
2.4.3. Situational Method
2.4.4. Audio-Oral Method
2.4.5. Audio-Visual Method
2.4.7. Communicative Approach
2.4.8. Humanist Approach: a ) Communicative Language Learning ( CLL )
B ) Silent Way
degree Celsius ) Total Physical Response
vitamin D ) Suggestopedia
vitamin E ) Natural Method
2.4.9. Tomatis Method
The traditional method, besides called “ Grammar-Translation ” ( Bestard Monroy and Perez Marin 1992 ) was the most used method until the twentieth century whose chief aim was the acquisition of grammatical regulations and lists of vocabulary and so, transporting out the interlingual rendition of classical linguistic communications literary texts. It was non effectual in modern linguistic communications larning.
When Structuralism appeared, new methods started to emerge. At first, the “ Direct Method ” offered the pattern of unwritten linguistic communication alternatively of written linguistic communication, grammatical accounts and interlingual rendition ( Parkinson de Saz, 1984 ) . Its aim was geting the cognition of a foreign linguistic communication like it consisted of a female parent linguistic communication. Teachers, when they had categories, used the foreign linguistic communication by gestures and images for their pupils to understand. Interactions among pupils and instructors as a consequence were rather unreal and out of context and hence, they did non hold a communicative character. The instructor was the individual who controlled the beat and the state of affairs of the category. That method began to widen in the United States but it was non really successful, so its development in Europe started.
In the “ Situational Method ” ( Bestard Monroig and Perez Marin 1992 ) , the contents organisation in different contexts was its chief aim, learning pupils the linguistic communication used in different existent state of affairss for them to pattern it in more concrete state of affairss larning the most suited looks in each minute. Its chief disadvantage was that all state of affairss in the life of a human being were impossible to sort.
The “ Audio-Oral Method ” is based on Conductism. It emerged in North America around 1940 and these were its most of import aims ( Bestard Monroig and Perez Marin 1992 ) : unwritten look and comprehension were the most of import accomplishments and composing 1s in a 2nd topographic point, basic constructions of a linguistic communication must be learnt by bosom and the signifier is more of import than the content based on the importance of pronunciation and grammar.
It introduces the constructions in an ordered and gradual manner similar to constructions in existent linguistic communication. One of its disadvantages is the uninterrupted repeat of exercisings because they may take to the loss of involvement in pupils.
The complement to this method was the “ Audio-Visual Method ” ( Nussbaum Capdevila 1994 ) . It started in France in 1950 and it was really successful in the remainder of Europe between 1960 and 1970. It utilised ocular resorts ( images, postings ) and listened resorts ( teacher voice, recordings, soundtracks ) to learn the new linguistic communication. The cardinal aim was to develop the ability of speech production and to grok the spoken linguistic communication by utilizing ocular and listened resorts that introduced in a category the linguistic communication used in existent life and in some contexts learning a foreign linguistic communication in a communicative manner. The Generativist paradigm got over the Structuralist 1 in the decennary of 1960 and it had some effects in linguistic communication educations. In Generativism