This survey plays a critical function for the people at the terminal of the determination devising in the Government sector of Pakistan. Normally the method that has been adapted is based on the water under the bridge experience or hit and trail method that is because of the limited cognition and research available on this sector. There are two types of compensation benefits pecuniary and non-monetary. Monetary are besides called hard currency benefits and are considered as the portion of the wage as per the BPS graduated table or rank while non-monetary benefits that can besides be called touchable benefits are considered as the fringe benefits and benefits that are provided to the employee as extra privilege to be working in that certain organisation. In add-on to that there are differences in the compensation standards within Public sector and Private sector, non merely Pakistan but in all over the universe. This paper put its focal point on the importance of the non-monetary or touchable benefits provided to the Water and Power Development Authority ( WAPDA ) , which is a authorities organisation runing in one Punjab, Pakistan. This paper finds its best involvement in holding an apprehension on the degree of motive these non- pecuniary benefits provide to the WAPDA employees, that leads to the high degree of public presentation of the employee, the degree of occupation satisfaction and how it really benefits the organisation. The sample of sample of 30 employees of WAPDA was taken, specified within the BPS graduated table of 11 to 21 through a questionnaire. Three types of touchable inducements were taken into history are Job Incentives, Medical Facilities and Traveling Benefits. All the information was gathered and have been interpreted with the aid of the graphical representation.
Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority ( WAPDA ) came into being in 1958 as a Semi-Independent corporation that was established with the purposes of forming and supplying an integrated path for the development of agreements in Water and Power Sectors, that was hence under the supervising of the several Electricity and Irrigation Department of the States.
In October 2007 the determination was taken to divide WAPDA into two separate objects that are WAPDA and Pakistan Electric Power Company in short ( PEPCO ) . WAPDA takes duty for H2O and hydropower development on the other manus PEPCO is responsible for thermic “ power Production ” , transmittal, supply & A ; charge.
WAPDA is responsible for look intoing, be aftering & A ; put to deathing agreements for the followers: to bring forth, transmit and power distribute, to water, H2O allotment & A ; drainage, to forestall and repossess from H2O logging & A ; saline lands, inundation commanding & A ; inland course-plotting.
The Authority has a Chairman and three Members working from terminal to stop with a Secretary. WAPDA is included in the companies holding largest employers of human resources in Pakistan. WAPDA really revolves around the three major sections which has there sub sections like any other organisation. Every section has three degree of stations under which each officer is hired that are proficient, managerial and clerical.
The Power Wing
The Water Wing
The Finance Department
The classs of the employees are same harmonizing to the stations irrespective of the section they are working in WAPDA.
Achieve and keep the highest grade of efficiency, dependability and reactivity as a public service organisation for assortment of clients. Public and company workers ‘ safety shall be high on our precedence. Retaining and turning our concern, staff and client base will be of primary importance. Developing advanced concern relationships both inside and outside our local distribution country will be cardinal to our success.
As the taking electricity distribution company, strive to supply un-interrupted electric supply and quality service to all clients at the lower limit possible cost.
WAPDA ‘s aim is to supply smooth and dependable flow or supply of electricity. In instance of any perturbations with the electricity flow, they intend to reconstruct it every bit shortly as possible so that locals of Pakistan do n’t confront any issue because of the interventions. To keep the supply they accurately and with clip read the metre and travel for the charge system. They facilitate the locals in instance of the new connexion petition in as less clip as possible. They are following an unfastened door policy to do their consumers every bit comfy as they can and bask every luxury of life. Other than that in instance of in clip payments made by the clients they are provided with some particular grants. To ease the consumers there are franchises and WAPDA offices located in every country of Lahore to cover with twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours issues and exigencies faced by the people and supply them with solutions, non merely this the client service centres are 24/7 present for the feedback of their clients. In add-on to that they besides care for their labours and workingmans with proper preparation to follow safety step while working on lines to avoid any kind of bad luck ; they really take stairss for the public assistance of the company and making sense of belonging amongst company employees that finally leads to the wellbeing of the whole state. They besides create cognizant among consumers with energy salvaging runs through public service messages. Another aim is of making and keeping positive image of WAPDA in the heads of the consumer with smooth flow of electricity in all over Lahore and other metropoliss of Pakistan.
WAPDA, the Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority, was created in 1958 as a semi-autonomous organic structure for the intent of organizing and giving a incorporate way to the development of strategies in H2O and power sectors, which were antecedently being dealt with, by the several electricity and irrigation section of the states.
Since October 2007, WAPDA has been bifurcated into two distinguishable entities i.e. WAPDA and Pakistan Electric Power Company ( PEPCO ) . WAPDA takes duty for H2O and hydropower development whereas PEPCO is in charge for the disposal of WAPDA ‘s 14 public limited companies in the parts of thermic power Production, transmittal, distribution and charge. These are as follows:
4 Companies of Production of Thermal Power -GENCOs:
Southern Production Power Company Limited GENCO-1, runing from Jamshoro territory Dadu near Hyderabad, Sindh.
Cardinal Power Production Company Limited GENCO-2, runing from Guddu territory Jacobabad, Sindh.
Northern Power Production Company Limited GENCO-3, runing from TPS Muzaffargarh territory Muzaffargarh. Punjab.
Lakhra Power Production Company Limited GENCO-4, runing from WAPDA House, Lahore.
1 National Transmission and Power Dispatch Company -NTDC
9 Distribution Companies ( DISCOs ) are as follows:
Lahore Electric Supply Company Limited- LESCO
Gujranwala Electric Power Company -GEPCO
Faisalabad Electric Supply Company -FESCO
Islamabad Electric Supply Company- IESCO
Multan Electric Power Company -MEPCO
Peshawar Electric Supply Company -PESCO
Hyderabad Electric Supply Company Limited -HESCO
Quetta Electric Supply Company- QESCO
Presently Pakistan is traveling through a terrible energy crisis. Even with the strong growing in economic system since the past decennary and attendant increasing demand for energy and still no appropriate actions have been taken that enables put ining extra capacity that generates the indispensable energy beginnings. As it is really much apparent signifier the sum of burden casting that is happening in Pakistan that the demand is manner more than supply and has become the most frequent phenomenon in the class of perennial power closures. Pakistan needs about 14000-15000MW electricity per twenty-four hours ; on the other manus demand is anticipated to raise about 20,000 MW per twenty-four hours. At the minute it has an ability to bring forth about 11, 500 MW per twenty-four hours which gives the shortage of more or less 3000-4000MW per twenty-four hours. This underperformance has a bad impact on the industry, commercialism and people in their mundane life. The executable actions are required on immediate footing that would be to continue all degrees of power, use all accessible bases to develop the overall Production of energy. Apparently there is intelligence that authorities is holding ideas of importing energy from Iran and Central Asian Republics and utilizing original beginnings like hydel, coal, waste, air current, and solar power nit merely this but besides extra surrogate and renewable energy beginnings other than atomic power workss for Production of energy. It is wholly uncalled for that if the state wants to transport on its trade and industry development and fringe benefit up the excellence of life of its people so sober attempts are needed in enveloping a rational energy policy.
The state has pitched into energy crisis since the twelvemonth 2007 that consequences in increased demand in electricity which crosses the threshold of dual digit figure following increasing in gross revenues of electrical and electronic contraptions on rental finance. As per Pakistan Economic Survey the use of electricity has gone up by 8.6 % within first three-quarter of last financial twelvemonth. Nevertheless the top direction of WAPDA sustains that electricity demand heaved up to 13 % within last one-fourth. As per the study the family sector as by now the largest consumer of electricity accounting for 44.2 % in overall electricity use, on 2nd figure is the industries by 31.1 % , 3rd agribusiness 14.3 % , 4th farther authorities sector 7.4 % , 5th commercial 5.5 % and street light 0.7 % . Detecting the case in point inclination and the hereafter advancement, WAPDA has besides made some amendments in its burden appraisal by 8 % per annum adjacent with anterior prognosiss of 5 % on norm.
The electricity production section in Pakistan comprises of hydro, thermic and atomic power workss. Approximately 31 % power is produced by hydel system, 66.8 % by thermic construction and the staying 2.2 % is produced by atomic power production constructions.
After the divider Indo-Pakistan in 1947, Hydel production capacity was merely 10.7 MW divided as 9.6 MW – Malakand Power Station & A ; 1.1 MW -at Renala Power Station in the Pakistani part. With clip several little and average graduated table undertakings were built like the first H2O storage dike besides a power house at Warsak that to rose hydel capableness to about 267 MW up till 1963.
In 1967 & A ; 1977, Mangla Dam on Jhelum River and Tarbela Dam on Indus River came into being for the proviso of power production. The 13 hydel Stationss capacity is as follows:
The electricity burden tendency in Pakistan differs in every season ; and most of the burden is in the summer season. The power production and maximal burden figures is given as follows:
The projected or estimated demand of electricity from 2015 boulder clay 2030 based on the past tendency is given as follows:
The ingestion form of Electricity is given as follows:
The Ministry of Water and Power takes duty including all policy personal businesss that are relevant with the growing of H2O and power resources. Furthermore that it operated some of the definite undertakings like analysing strategic and fiscal formation for the hereafter large graduated table programs for both public and private sections while maintaining in head the proficient feasibleness of those programs.
Still the amended burden prognosis has been unsuccessful with all measuring that consequences in no other solution with the Authority other than get downing with burden sloughing, and every twelvemonth with extra figure of hours per twenty-four hours for the burden casting which has negative impact on economic system in every manner. All that is required at this point in clip is a quantum spring in the production of electricity in non so terrible state of affairs to regress the potency of burden casting in upcoming old ages owing to diminish in slit between demand and supply of electricity at peak hours.
In the research paper, “ A survey of the relationships between compensation bundle, work motive and occupation satisfaction ” written by Jacques Igalens & A ; Patrice Roussel, a theoretical model centered on anticipation and disagreement theories helps in holding a proper apprehension of the manner that factors of full compensation provided to the employees to some extent have a authority to rock work inducement and occupation satisfaction. As ascertained, the premier characteristics of complete inducement plan have an impact in a manner to increase in different feedbacks by employees. Two samples of employees were taken into consideration one was of 269 alleviated employees and 297 non-relieved employees, were the one to take into history separately with the intent of scrutiny, to sort the differentiations in the responses of these two assemblies. The associations between the constituents of entire compensation, work motive and occupation satisfaction were evaluated by a structural equations theoretical account with LISREL VII. There were pitches made to anticipate the fortunes of compensation efficiency on work motive and occupation satisfaction in the traditional model of employment in France. The three chief tax write-offs of the survey were:
In certain fortunes, personalized compensation for exempt employees acted as motive for work.
Flexible wage for taxable employees does n’t motivates or additions occupation satisfaction
Incentives of exempt and taxable employees do n’t actuate or increase occupation satisfaction.
The figure explains gives a better position on the interrelatednesss between the two theoretical accounts more clearly.
There are three possibilities of this survey that are in different orders. The first point suggests the acquisition of the relationship with some of the bases of wage satisfaction and the method of work motive. In add-on to that Greenberg ( 1987 ) and Kanfer ( 1992 ) propose the associations amongst organisational justness and work motive can be observed with an incorporate theoretical account of the motivational pattern. The 2nd point as a patterned advance method of this probe helps to better the scrutiny as per the assured distinct criterions like as rank of a trade brotherhood, while as per the contextual variables of Mitchell ( 1997 ) suggests that organisational civilization adds to one of these related variables that can be analyzed to sort the focal point population. The 3rd point can be linked to transcultural research, this theoretical account affects wholly with the interfaces of perceptual variables in the developments of motive and satisfaction. The 3rd point is really an attack to the person would enable to assist in contrast of these mechanisms refering employees of some states.
The paper named, “ Motivation Crowding Theory ” written by Bruno S. Frey and Reto Jegen.
The motive herding consequence revolves around the camouflage intermediation through pecuniary motives or penalties may destabilise and in diverse distinguishable signifiers fortify intrinsic motive. Nowadays, the theoretical chance of motive crowding is moving as premier affair of treatment amongst economic experts. This paper demonstrates that the consequence is besides of empirical grounds in nutriment of the presence of crowding-out and crowding-in consequence. The survey is centered on conditional indicant, research lab surveies by psychologists every bit good as economic experts and even in field research by econometric surveies. The parts of verification that came in forepart suggest that comprehensive and typical Fieldss of the economic system and society have been composed for some different states and continuances of clip. The effects of Herding hence are explained as an experientially important happening that has a inclination to further in certain state of affairss to command the out-of-date monetary value consequence.
Economicss provinces that the likeliness of exterior interventions through motives or penalties crowding-out intrinsic motive in dissimilar recognizable fortunes has normally been acknowledged as the abstract degree ; on the other manus the theory is besides dubious in the eyes of assorted bookmans. However maximal Numberss of critical positions are in favour of the ascertained significance of the crowding effects. This survey indicates that this uncertainness can non be justified and that stout experiential cogent evidence does shows its presence as for crowding-out and crowding-in. This decision is based on circumstantial grounds, laboratory verification by both psychologists and economic experts, in fact non juts so but besides field verification by economic system and society: childs ‘ larning behaviour ; parents willingness to travel for given medicine ; fiscal and nonliteral wagess for holding with several laboratory errands ; the leaning to set in the research lab scenery, retroflexing work scenes in an organisation ; the sweep of trust demonstrated in a laboratory province of unfinished understandings ; the response of directors to different types of disposals by their higher-ups ; the disposition to supply with calculated occupation ; the review of timetables in day care hubs ; the on-time flight presentation in the industry of air hose ; the acuteness to acknowledge atomic waste beginnings, particularly in mention of delighting individual ‘s revenue enhancement duty that is called revenue enhancement morale. The empirical decision has been composed for legion diverse states and clip continuances.
Hence it is safe to state that Herding affects are an through empirical observation applicable happening. However without any uncertainty it is non mandatory that it conquer over the traditional 1 as compared to monetary value consequence. Surely the attempt can be seen both in theory and as an empirical application to sort the milieus that affect the crowding-out and crowding-in results ascend, and the fortunes which have been anticipated to regulate the qualified monetary value consequence.
Another research paper entitled “ The Motivational Properties of Tangible Incentives ” by the writers viz. Scott A. Jeffrey and Victoria Shaffer states that legion organisations located in North America wont touchable inducements that are explained as the physical articles that are in footings of noncash but still are depending on presentation, to counterbalance and actuate the employees. The illustration can be taken really mush heard sing the pink Cadillac ‘s that Mary Kay Cosmetics giveaways to its best gross revenues agents ; conversely, the most uncommon impression that some people knows of what degree this signifier of inducement is followed in organisations. A research by an industry concluded that 78percent of organisations are following the impression of supplying touchable inducements to their gross revenues forces and 67percent of organisations are devouring the same inducements for non-sales work force. The survey ( Tim Houlihan, personal communicating -April 2006 ) functionaries of the industry anticipate that about US $ 1 billion was expended on this signifier of inducement in 2004 and that numerical is projected to lift at around 7percent per twelvemonth. Even though 1 billion dollars of outgo might look undistinguished comparative to whole U.S. paysheet of above the sum of $ 4 trillion dollars still there is as such no scrutiny has been done on the factors of touchable inducements that help them to be actuating cause for employees. Therefore significant amount of capital is being used up on touchable inducements by a partial consideration of the manner it can be utilized at its best. The point that is noticeable here is that touchable inducements which are non-monetary ought to be measured extrinsic incentives since they are normally depending on presentation and are delivered by a cause other than of the individual. For that ground, this paper does non seek to cover the consideration on the topic of the use of extrinsic benefits with their result by intrinsic benefits. Slightly, the accents is on characteristics of touchable benefits and the ground behind work force think of it as actuating factor. It introduces and explores the psychological thoughts of justification, societal support the ability to be separate and rating and inspects the manner it has an impact on motivational component of touchable benefits.
Allowing the 1 billion dollars paid on touchable benefits are undistinguished as compared to figure of employee advantage even so it is rather a considerable size of money. Keeping in head the great sum consumed still the lack of demanding research in this portion needs the attending. Furthermore, certain theories that are explained in this article might be in usage for organisations underutilizing this kind of inducement. Get downing off with the portion that houses are doing a big sum of outgo on these inducements with limited cognition on the topic that could really back up with some theory. There are some treatments on the manner with which it can be implied that helps in its use of these touchable inducements. Some of the psychological mechanisms have besides been discussed and presented on justifiability, societal support and separability. The motivational factor of touchable benefits is explained with nailing those elements of these temptations with regard to some of these constructs. There is no such statement on the remotion of hard currency inducements in blessing of touchable inducements though there is no uncertainty that hard currency is and ever will be an indispensable influence. Research in this portion can assist to reason at what clip they had better is practiced, through which sort of employees would be extreme effectual and in what manner these incentive strategies should be applied. Sing by what means touchable benefits upsurge work force motive holding the prospective to significantly spread out the efficaciousness of all bundles of inducements.
Added to above information this paper “ ” Entire Reward ” : Its utility as a strategic lever in actuating staff and impacting their workplace public presentation ” written by Charlotte Clark, examines in what manner “ Entire Reward ” would be utile with regard to excite staff and the manner it has an impact on their public presentation. “ “ Entire Reward ” ” able to bring forth sensible benefit ( Hiles, 2009 ) , it is even believed “ possibly the ‘greatest discovery in compensation and benefits since wellness attention programs started to demo up along with wage bundles ‘ “ ( Giancola, 2009 ) .
“ Entire Reward ” includes four types that are pay, benefits while larning & A ; development and work environment. Herzberg ‘s “ two factor theory ” likewise assorts touchable & A ; intangible factors. Tangible elements considered as ‘hygiene ‘ facets avoid occupation dissatisfaction while intangible factors as ‘motivators ‘ regulate the strong point of satisfaction. Workforce acquiring “ Entire Reward ” would accordingly acquire transcending content since they obtain together ‘hygiene ‘ factors and ‘motivators ‘ .
Last but non the least the research by the name of “ Impact of Reward and Recognition on Job Satisfaction and Motivation ” which is an empirical survey by Rizwan Qaiser Danish and Ali Usman identifies that human resources are the extreme important thick all the financess an organisation possesses. In the way of retain efficient and knowing staff in an organisation it is really critical in general act of an organisation. Motivated forces would help in doing a group competitively auxiliary value added and moneymaking. The present survey is an attempt to dicker the foremost facets that inspire forces and explains the association with the wages, acknowledgment and motive when working in a corporation. The information was gathered from employees of varied class of societies to acquire widespread presentation of sectorial agreement. The numerical scrutiny exhibited that altered Scopess of work motive and satisfaction are meaningfully interrelated and wages and acknowledgment have great influence on motive of the employees. Effectss of the survey for decision makers and policy Godheads in the position of human resource performs have been discussed and came out to be reasonably effectual as a motivation factor.
The intent of the survey was to detect the sway of wages and acknowledgment on motive and occupation satisfaction. Investigation takes a close association amid more than a few extents of work motive and satisfaction but grasp sideways with the occupation itself and runing procedures have revealed small average values and irrelevant relationship. With regard to Pakistan ‘s model the employees reflect that there is a little opportunity of gratitude from the supervisor in making a good occupation. These deficits can be sorted in instance of higher-ups motivate their subsidiaries with suited recognition and gratitude by doing small attempts as demoing concern about their household jobs. Employee ‘s part in the declaration building process will move as an encouragement and physiques enthusiasm while employed in the organisation. in add-on to that the occasional salary increases, allowances, fillips, periphery reimbursements and other compensations provided systematically every bit good as on peculiar phases retains their morale high and helps them to be more motivated. this research in add-on to be go arounding around the motivational procedure for any employee working in any of the organisation besides put accents in constructing the relationship between employees and employer.
Human Resource ( WAPDA )
The cardinal countries of human resources includes engaging procedure, publicity procedure, disciplinary procedure, developing procedure, ailment procedure, competences of human resources and rightness of occupation descriptions. These maps were accessed with mention to the policies and processs adopted by WAPDA for sing that competent staff are inducted in crystalline mode for managing the financess disbursed y donor bureaus.
Based on the reappraisal of Human Resources Management, it appears to be that overall systems are in topographic point and internal control system is effectual.
WAPDA is following certain human resource Policies and Procedure Manuals that are:
Pakistan WAPDA service of Electrical Rules 1965
Pakistan WAPDA Common Cadre Administrative Posts Service Rules 1965
WAPDA Manuals of General regulations
These regulations were compiled by the Directorate of Rules ( Services and General Administration ) WAPDA by integrating all the instructions of Authority signifier clip to clip till 31st December 2008 though these regulations are still incorporated and are being followed sacredly said spokesperson WAPDA. These regulations apply to all WAPDA employees irrespective of the service or subject they belong.
WAPDA is divided in three different sectors/wings that are sub divided in to other sections. The highest BPS graduated table in WAPDA is 21, the highest rank in WAPDA is of the Chairman and another employee that is at the same degree is the Secretary Power who is n’t concerned with any other employee of WAPDA, he is merely the representative /spokesperson of Government in the organisation who participates in some of the authorities related issues or personal businesss related to WAPDA. Below him are the five employees three of them are the Members/Senior GM ( BPS 21 ) of the three different wings that are H2O, power and finance and other two are PSO ( BPS 18 ) and Managing Director of Administration ( BPS 19 ) . Under Member Power comes 5 General Managers ( BPS 20 ) of different section but have the same degree ; Finance, Hydel, Training, Principal ( WSC ) IBD and Principal ( WEA ) FSD. Under Member Water come 14 different General Managers ( BPS 20 ) of different sections. Member Finance has an authorization on 5 different ranks ; one of them is of BPS 20, two of BPS 19 and two of BPS 17. Pull offing Director of Administration ( BPS 20 ) has two officers working under him of BPS 19. All other inside informations are explained in the chart that is given below explains the WAPDA organisational construction good plenty:
The below given table identifies the entire strength of WAPDA employees being sanctioned, Regularly working, re- employed, are working on contract footing, are on commission, working on day-to-day rewards. The figure of vacant officers and other staff is besides mentioned but those Numberss of people are excluded from the entire strength.
Pre- Award Survey Of Water and Power Development Authority ( WAPDA ) 2012
The tabular array given below identifies the strength of the employees that are sanctioned, regular, re-employed, are working on contract and day-to-day rewards, and went o commission or the seats that are vacant merely in the Power Wing of WAPDA.
Pre- Award Survey Of Water and Power Development Authority ( WAPDA ) 2012
The tabular array given below identifies the strength of the employees that are sanctioned, regular, re-employed, are working on contract and day-to-day rewards, and went o commission or the seats that are vacant merely in the Water Wing of WAPDA.
Pre- Award Survey Of Water and Power Development Authority ( WAPDA ) 2012
The tabular array given below identifies the strength of the employees that are sanctioned, regular, re-employed, are working on contract and day-to-day rewards, and went o commission or the seats that are vacant merely in the Common Services of WAPDA.
Pre- Award Survey Of Water and Power Development Authority ( WAPDA ) 2012
The entire strength of WAPDA employees in twelvemonth 2012 in all the three wings are as follows:
Bits per second
Management ( Chairman And Secretary Power )
Members & A ; Senior GM
General Manager, Chief Engineer, CEO
Director/ Manager, Senior & A ; Resident Engineer Etc.
PSO, Deputy Director/ Manager, Executive Engineer, Security Officer, Store Keeper, Press Manager, Sr. B & A ; AO/ Audit/ Finance/ Account Etc.
Asst. Director/ Design Engineer/ Research Officer/ R.E/ Store Manager, Audit Officer, Junior Engineer, Budget & A ; Account Officer, Medical Officer Etc.
Asst. Research Officer/ Audit Officer/ Telecom Officer, Computer Operator/ Teacher, Senior Superintendent, Foreman, Stenographer G-I Etc.
Account Asst./ Cashier Assistant, Budget Examiner, Inspector, Junior Superintendent, Stenographer G- I Etc.
Account/ Audit Assistant, Cashier, Junior Inspector, Librarian, Stenographer G-II Etc.
Head Draftsman, Foreman, Special Security Guard, Store Supervisor Etc.
A.C Supervisor, Asst Foreman, Computer/ Data Entry Operator, PABX Operator, Stenographer II Etc.
Research Assistant, Mechanic, Electrician, Sub Engineer, Stenographer II, Accounts Assistant
Driller, Security Inspector, Telecom Mechanic Etc.
Senior Clerks/ Electrician Etc.
Hydro-Grapher, Mechanic, Auto Electrician Etc.
Junior Clerk, Driver, Machine-Man, Plant Operator Etc.
Junior Machine-Man, Driver, Field Assistant Etc.
Computer Clerk, Electrician, Junior Clerk/ Machine-Man Etc.
Tube-Well Operator, Field Helper, Drilling Helper Etc.
Bus Conductor, Watchman, Cleaner, Store Helper Etc.
Attendant, Battery-man, Watchman, Cleaner Etc.
Aya, Watchman, Skilled Labor, Service Man Etc.
Pre- Award Survey of Water and Power Development Authority ( WAPDA ) 2012
‘Non-monetary benefits lead to employee motive more in WAPDA employees relative to pecuniary benefits as compensation ‘
As every employee of the company are given some kind of compensation to do promote them or actuate them for working with them and carry throughing the undertakings and occupation that are assigned to them in a chiseled mode that will profit the house and the overall economic system of the state. Same is as with WAPDA as they are given compensation benefits in non-monetary footings that are Job Incentives, Medical Facilities and Travelling Benefits. Other benefits are non included in the research as those are available in other organisations as good. These three are peculiarly presented to WAPDA employees.
This is sarcasm of life that in today ‘s universe of marketing where everything is selling on the footing of how sellers arouse the demand of their merchandise in the market while on the other manus WAPDA is the lone organisation which is publicizing to rock clients to decrease the usage of electricity.
Now yearss when rising prices has spread like a virus, it does n’t merely affected Pakistan ‘s economic system but turned the whole economic system in a really bad form. However, electricity is a invariably developing engineering and the facets one presently associates with electricity and electricity Production are nowhere near to the original characteristics. In the past century and a half, electricity has steadily evolved from a scientific wonder, to a luxury of the flush, to a modern demand. Along the manner, it has been shaped by a assortment of non-technological factors: economic, political, societal, and environmental, to call a few. So the ground for taking the house is that WAPDA is the lone organisation that is providing and bring forthing electricity to the whole Punjab. As mentioned above anterior 1998 WAPDA had both Production and supply of electricity but after that policies changed and now nine different distribution companies under the authorization of country based distribution working under PEPCO are managing supply of electricity. This has divided the load from one organisation to different distribution companies as comparative to WAPDA institutes to do the whole process more effectual and efficient.
As WAPDA is a non-profit organisation and is under the authorization of Government, acquiring hired in it is n’t that easy. Interested campaigners have to work truly had to be a portion of this organisation. If an applied scientist is hired, he will acquire hired as the lowest class in officers ( BPS 17 ) and finally do his/her manner through the highest station ( BPS 21 ) . As it is a authorities owned, the processs are reasonably sulky as blessings, signatures of the authorization is needed for any question that has been floated in the organisation and this could be one of the ground that even if the orders ahs passed of advancing any employee, 6-7 months are needed by the employee to acquire the written and official missive to his manus. Even with these issues faced by WAPDA employees, people still see WAPDA as one of the best organisations. So the ground for making my research to understand the ground behind such impression, it is more explained in the portion of the research aims.
The aim of this while research is to understand that the lone thing that could actuate any employee in such environment would be the wage they are acquiring paid, which is surely non plenty if looking at it from this position that normally people who are acquiring hired in WAPDA are non from that rich background, and normally has been observed are back uping their households as good on inquiring they mentioned that it ‘s non merely the wage it ‘s the counterbalancing non-monetary benefits that are offered to them, and non merely to them but to their household as good. The most mentioned were:
Job Incentive ( the accent was on the house allowances/accommodation and free supply of units as they mentioned that electricity charges are high ( decided by the authorities ) and with such income they would n’t hold been able to afford it ) .
Medical Facility the whole medical composite is provided to the WAPDA employees that without any favoritism provide all of the employees irrespective of their class are provided with all the installations one must hold for a healthy life.
Traveling benefits employees consider this really thoughtful of WAPDA that they are provided with though little but one of the major issues they face while working as they are provide of conveyance issues. WAPDA has its in house conveyance service to pick and drop employees ( particularly employees that are working in the Fieldss ) and other going compensations that are needed by the employees.
The degree of importance of EACH compensation benefit as a bundle brand available to them.
The sentiment on holding hard currency in exchange of these pecuniary benefits that are provided to them.
The extent of motive degree of working in WAPDA as an employee because of compensation benefits provided to them.
All the other factors occupation analysis, occupation tantrum, organisation tantrum, occupation satisfaction are kept changeless to understand the relationship between these compensation benefits and motivational degree to work in WAPDA holding to confront the major issues that at times leads to de-motivation like work environment, work dealingss, appraisal issue, grasp etc.
This research paper has been conducted with the purpose of understanding the degree of motivational degree in the WAPDA employees with both and quantitative and qualitative research methods.
Quantitative Research harmonizing to Zikmund in his book Research Methods it is “ to find the measure or extent of some phenomenon in the signifier or Numberss ” . Two types of qualitative research has been used that are ; primary and secondary. Primary research is informations gathered and assembled specifically for the research undertaking at manus which is done for this research by drifting a questionnaire and acquiring them filled by WAPDA employees and subsequently the consequence has been calculated by tabling the information and stand foring them through graphs ; pie charts, line charts, saloon charts. The 2nd type of research that is secondary research is informations that has been antecedently collected for some undertaking other than the 1 in manus, in this research it has been gathered by literature reappraisal from some diaries, newspaper articles, and WAPDA ‘s paperss like garnering historical informations from to explicate the energy issues faced by Pakistan in the past five old ages. This research type is advantageous in this manner that Numberss are self-explanatory and does n’t necessitate that much justification.
The 5 page questionnaire ( Appendix ) has been constructed holding 5 parts that are general ; garnering demographic information about the respondents, the three variables go on to be compensation benefits ; occupation inducements holding 8 points, going benefits holding 4 points and medical installations holding 4 points and last 1 that asks about their sentiment about the overall compensation systems holding 3 points. 40 questionnaires were floated out of which merely 30 were utile for the research.
Out of all the employees of WAPDA merely accessed employees were those who are shacking in Lahore, and in Lahore merely in WAPDA House. 30 Respondents were able to make full in the questionnaire. Sample size specification includes employees both male and female of WAPDA within the basic wage graduated table of 11 boulder clay 21 working in WAPDA House, Lahore.
This paper have been written utilizing quantitative research due to the fact that it ‘s more apparent in footings of holding a support with numerical values that increases the assurance degree of genuineness. This method was good in the sense that information was gathered through primary research that means that all the facts, statistics, figures and everything that has been collected is first manus and is n’t based on any kind of premises or impressions that have non been identified by the sample population in this instance the employees. The questionnaire was floated and was asked them the inquiries that were straight related to the research, that will assist this research to acquire to the decision. Secondary research has been used to place the factors and other possibilities that have an impact on the motive of employees and non merely in Pakistan ; non merely this but assist to place the patterns of actuating employees in other states and how those patterns if followed in Pakistan would be helpful for the organisations to do their employees more motivated and satisfied with the occupation every bit good as the company.
Due to taking the authorities sector there are certain restrictions that are and will be faced. The first and the foremost is really limited information related to the organisation and for every spot of information one needs to confer with the WAPDA employees and their written records which are non easy available either. Another challenge that has been faced though is still related to it would be of their confidentiality, being the authorities owned organisation nil all the information and informations have discretion issues and they does n’t promote any kind of research to be done on them. Third the research is tad biased as merely 30 questionnaires were filled out of 4839 employees. Fourth the information was available merely till twelvemonth 2010.
There are 5 different subdivisions of the questionnaire. Data has been analyzed with the same sequence as given in the questionnaire get downing from general demographic inquiries to other different types of compensation benefits. Mention: Appendix: Questionnaire
The first portion has 5 inquiries sing the demographics of the respondents, which are as follows:
The first inquiry focuses on the gender distribution of the employees of WAPDA. Out of 30 respondents merely three questionnaires were filled by females that make merely 10percent per centum of females while 20 seven of them were males and that makes 90percent out of 100. This merely interprets that most of the employees that are working in WAPDA are males. Mention: Appendix: Figure 1
Second inquiry focuses on the age of the employees. There were three options in footings of age bracket were given to them. First is 20 – 30 old ages, 2nd is from 31 to 40 old ages and last one is above 40. As per the tabular matter of the respondents 60 per centum of the sample size falls in the 3rd class that is above 40. While 27 per centum of employees are in 2nd class and merely 13percent falls in the first option that is from 20 to 30 old ages. This merely means that most of the employees in the BPS 11 boulder clay 21are above 40 old ages of age. Mention: Appendix: Figure 2
The 3rd inquiry asks from the employees sing in which sector they work, three options were given to them that are H2O, power and finance. As there are sub sections within each sector. Out of 30 respondents 11 were in Water sector that makes 37percent of entire sample size, 9 were in Power sector that makes 33percent and 8 were in Finance sector that makes 30percent of entire respondents. Mention: Appendix: Figure 3
Post ( Skill degree )
The 4th inquiry was concentrating on the station or skill degree of the WAPDA employees. This means that for what intent are they hired and besides varies due to their educational background like technology ( civil, electrical ) , concern disposal or Masterss. Out of 30 respondents 40 per centum of them possess proficient stations, 43 per centum are at managerial stations and merely 17 per centum are at clerical places. As the respondents were merely from BPS 11 boulder clay 21 really few of the officers comes to BPS 17 or above. And the lone ground would be of that employee being hard-working and is in WAPDA for long ago. Mention: Appendix: Figure 4.
Bits per second
The 5th inquiry is sing the BPS ( basic wage graduated table ) or the class is really the appellation with which they are working in WAPDA, it fundamentally is the degree of the employee. There were four options that were the BPS classs from 11 to 13, 14 to 16, 17 to 19 and last option is 20 to 21. Eleven respondents autumn in the 2nd option that is within 14 to 16 BPS, 10 in 17 to 19 BPS, so seven falls in the option of 11 to 13 BPS and merely 2 respondents were in the 4th option that is within 20 and 21. Mention: Appendix: Figure 5.
This the 2nd portion of the questionnaire that really focuses on the on service benefits that are given to the employees as a non-monetary compensation other than the wage that are provided to them. There are different benefits that are given to them so this inquiry fundamentally focuses on that each one of these are fundamentally to what extent are of import in their sentiment. That is why each inquiry is given with a likert graduated table it is the continuum from ‘extremely of import ‘ , ‘slightly of import ‘ , ‘neutral, ‘not really of import ‘ and ‘not at all of import ‘ . Each benefit is given with these options in the signifier of a likert graduated table and respondents have asked to choose their option in footings of their position with regard to different benefits provided in the occupation inducements.
Free Supply of Electricity Units ( KWH )
Every WAPDA employee is provided with some free units, these units are provided to them in the signifier grant as being portion of power Production and once supply of the electricity.
Harmonizing to one of the office order it is stated that the authorization has been pleased to heighten the grant of free electricity to WAPDA employees that has been incorporated since November 1st, 1991. The entitlement under each class of employees will be as under:
Class of Employees
Sum of Concession ( monthly )
Staff in class 1-4
Staff in class 5-10
Staff in class 11-15
Staff in class 16
Staff in class 17
Military officers in grade18
Military officers in grade19
Military officers in class 20
Military officers in class 21
This allocation has been made by the General Secretary of WAPDA in Hydro Electric Labor Union.
A consumer is charged with the rates that are given below:
First 100 units will be charged on the rate of Rs. 5.790 per KWH
Following 200 will be charged at the rate of Rs. 8.110 per KWH
Following 400 will be charged at the rate of Rs.12.330 per KWH
After that all the consumed units will be charged at the rate of Rs. 15.070 per KWH
The cost computation of the free units ( kwh ) allotted to the WAPDA employees in footings of compensation and on service benefits, if non provided will be given some sum of money equal to the cost of the kwh units that can be consumed in a month. The allocation of the units is on monthly bases and differs from classs of the employees which are from BPS one ( 1 ) to 22 ( 21 ) .
If the sum is calculated that how much cost is of these grant units that are allotted to WAPDA employees in footings of the monetary value rate of the each unit that is paid by the private consumer on hourly footing as the rates are different at the different clip of the twenty-four hours, will give the sum of money that is spend to supply the WAPDA employees with these units. The computation will be done in this manner that the entire figure of units allotted to the WAPDA employees of each class and multiplying it with the rates that has been charged to the general populace and adding the entire cost to understand the entire sum that are provided to the WAPDA employees in the signifier of the grant units as a compensation.
Accounting of the units allotment ( kwh ) in footings of the monetary value that has been spent on the employees of the WAPDA as a compensation to actuate them and to execute better in the occupation hence doing overall public presentation of the organisation doing better.
Bits per second
No. of Posts
( a )
Unit of measurements Allocated
( B )
Monetary value Allocation Harmonizing To The Unit of measurements
( degree Celsius )
Amount Spent On One Employee
( vitamin D ) *
Entire Amount Of Cost Spent On Total Number Of Employees Harmonizing To Bps
( vitamin E ) =b ten vitamin D
Annual Accounting of the Cost
( degree Fahrenheit ) =e*12
100 ten Rs. 5.790
200 x Rs8.110
400 ten Rs 12.330
600 x Rs15.070
*Calculation method is given in the Appendix: Table
The entire sum that has been spent on the allotment of the free electric supply units to WAPDA employees from BPS 11 to 21 is Rs. 6,18,987,960 about yearly in Pakistan Rupees.
The inquiry focuses on that to what extent in WAPDA employee ‘s sentiment are these free units are of import as a occupation inducement. Out of 30 respondents bulk of the respondents that would be 17 in figure, selected the option of it being highly of import. Eight respondents think that it ‘s somewhat of import while three respondents are apathetic with this option. And merely two respondents ( Each ) selected the last two options given that were non really of import and non at all of import. Mention: Appendix: Figure 6
These are the benefits as is self-explanatory with the name are non merely given to the employees but besides to the household members. In instance of a married employee his ain household ; that would be his married woman and kids and his parents, and in instance of a individual individual his parents and his siblings merely are allowed to be benefited with this installation. These benefits include medical installations for the household members including surgical installation, prescription allowances, some of the orderly allowance like retainers and a driver and take place auto every bit good as adjustment installation depending on the employees BPS and his/ her matrimonial position. In employees view these benefits are highly of import as 20 of the respondents really selected the option of it being highly of import. Seven of the respondents ticked the option of somewhat of import, one of the respondents selected the option of being apathetic and merely two of the respondents thinks that it ‘s non really of import while none of the respondent considered this option to be non at all of import. This merely concludes that bulk really considered this is as a benefit for the employees of WAPDA. Mention: Appendix: Figure 7.
General Provident Fund
General Provident Fund is really a fund that is really a kind of non involvement loan that WAPDA employees can take as per their want and it is dependent on the employee wholly whether they want to pay it back by subtracting the sums of installments form their monthly wage or non. The option of non paying the loan is because this fund or the money in the fund is really the sum really being deducted from their wage since they have joined the service with purposes of giving them back when they get retired so that they can populate their life after service comfortably. Though as per the employees the most selected option was being ‘slightly of import ‘ as 15 of the respondents were in favour of this option. 12 of the respondents believe that it ‘s ‘extremely of import ‘ , two of the respondents considers that neither it ‘s of import nor it ‘s unimportant as they have selected the option of ‘neutral ‘ and merely one of them thinks that its ‘not really of import ‘ . So it is safe to state that in employees sentiment this fund/loan is really of import and it has a great value as it can be used in instance of exigency and at the clip of deficient of loan. Plus it is kind of a economy of a money for the hereafter usage without any kind of other service charges that are really deducted if he same sum is with bank and being involvement free loan that is ever available as a liquid hard currency is evidently be preferred. Mention: Appendix: Figure 8.
WAPDA is a governmental organisation and an employee working in the authorities organisation is or finally will reassign from metropolis to metropolis within a state and in rare instances in metropoliss of other states. So in these instances they need a topographic point to populate in, which WAPDA provides to them depending on their class. And if certain employee has his/her ain adjustment agreements as in finds a house on rent so WAPDA provides them with limited sum of house allowances to pay the rent, the employee would happen the house within the same sum scope or he/she has to pay from his ain pocket. In instance of holding to populate in the same metropolis the employee has his house he will still be provided with some extra value once more depending on the class as portion of the wage. On inquiring the respondents as their position on this as an inducement 18 of the respondents believe that it is ‘extremely of import ‘ and other 12 thinks it ‘s ‘slightly of import ‘ . None of the employee selected any of the other three options. Mention: Appendix: Figure 9.
This refers to supplying the officers of merely grade 20 and above with a functioning aid at place in the signifier of a driver, watcher or house amah depending on the employee grant wholly or supplying them with some sum that is sanctioned by the authorities, at present it is Rs. 1900 to Rs. 3000, it is provided to the employees so that they make agreements as per their comfort. Though the respondents are n’t in favour of this installation at all likely the ground being it merely provided to the class 20 and above and evidently for bulk of other officers it is of no help. The response came out to some extent as biased, 21 of the respondents thinks it ‘s “ non really of import ” and rest nine respondents thinks it ‘s ‘not at all of import ‘ and none of the other three options have been selected. Mention: Appendix: Figure 10.
These are the allowances that are provided to the employees for professional development and non merely provided merely when they are working in WAPDA but besides after acquiring retired. The sum is merely Rs. 500 to Rs. 600 regardless of the class of the employee. On service it will be provided as many times the employee appeared for the classs which finally helps them advance the class and merely one time when they get retired on retrieval of the GP fund ( mentioned above ) . The respondents have given assorted feedback bulk of the people that makes 12 of them chose the option ‘not really of import ‘ , eight of them chose ‘not at all of import ‘ , five of the respondents thinks it is ‘slightly of import ‘ , four are apathetic about it as they selected the option ‘neutral ‘ and merely one respondent thinks that it is ‘extremely of import ‘ . This does n’t look to be that of import in the employees view and it should n’t be due to the fact that sum that is given to them does n’t profit them in a broad graduated table. Mention: Appendix: Figure 11.
These benefits include the costs that incur when the employees are going for the concern intent e.g. they went on a class, any of the field visits at the building site of dikes, it besides involves the employees those does n’t hold their ain personal vehicles to come to office or uses public conveyance for that affair and even if they have their ain conveyance they will be accommodated with add-on of certain sum of money in their wage scope.
These allowances carry the add-on of some money in their wage. This fundamentally allows them to utilize certain sum of fuel per month in instance of holding their ain vehicle and this varies with their class, the distance of their office from their houses and the engine of the vehicle. This besides covers the 20 and above with return place auto. Fourteen of the employees consider that this is ‘slightly of import ‘ , seven are apathetic about it and chose the option of ‘neutral ‘ , four of the respondents consider that it is “ non really of import ‘ , three considers this ‘not at all of import ‘ and merely two respondents thinks that its ‘extremely of import ‘ . Mention: Appendix: Figure 12.
Take Home Car
This option is merely for the employees in the BPS 20 and 21. As because of their senior status and working in WAPDA for such a long clip, so are provided with a auto that is considered as a belongings of the authorities and is given to the employee until he gets retired or dies to some ground. All the disbursals and cost that incurs will be paid by the WAPDA every bit good. The graph explains that 11 of the respondents consider this option as ‘slightly of import ‘ ; nine of them ponder that it is ‘not really of import ‘ ; four of the respondents are apathetic about it while the carbon monoxide incidence is that the two extremes of the graph that is ‘extremely of import ‘ and ‘not at all of import ‘ are selected by three respondents each. This is a really assorted response and one ca n’t acquire into any decision with this though it is rather apparent that bulk of the respondents are in favour of this installation. Mention: Appendix: Figure 13.
In instance of going out of town or far off on behalf of the office so up to 40 kilometers will be paid by WAPDA. This option is for class lower than 20 as BPS 20 and above are already compensated with take place auto and fuel allowances. Harmonizing to the pie chart 50 per centum of the respondents ruminate that it is ‘extremely of import ‘ , 23 per centum thinks that its ‘slightly of import ‘ , 14 per centum believes that it is non really of import, 10 per centum think that it is ‘not at all of import ‘ and merely 3 per centum are uninterested about it as they chose the option of ‘neutral ‘ . A really varied response is shown by the graph but as half of the respondents see this highly of import so it must be profiting the employees in some manner. Mention: Appendix: Figure 14.
Certain employees that are working in truly low class ( 1 to 15 ) are provided with WAPDA conveyance service ( coach ) picks them from the nearest coach Michigans, While others officers who wish to avail the choice and bead service they have to pay some charges that is sanctioned by Government will be deducted from their wage on monthly footing as at the minute they deduct 150 Rs. regardless of the distance of the house from office. Looking at the graph it is rather apparent that merely 37 per centum of the respondents think that it is ‘slightly of import ‘ , 23 per centum unconcerned with this, 17 per centum believes that its ‘extremely of import ‘ and staying 10 percent thinks that it is ‘not at all of import ‘ . The consequence shows that as bulk chose the option of it being somewhat of import so it comprise of some value in the eyes of the employees. Mention: Appendix: Figure 15.
As goes by the name this installation covers all the bad lucks, inadvertent and all the necessary nursing services that one is needed. WAPDA does n’t supply any kind of medical insurance, but it does supply them with a complete medical composite, located in every major metropolis of Pakistan ( provided WAPDA is runing at that place ) . Any installation or resource, equipment that is n’t available in the infirmary will be paid by WAPDA on the receiving of the reception from the refereed topographic point as aid would be needed from outside the installation. There are different levels/wards in the infirmary though physicians and nurses for all the patients whether related to any of the BPS of WAPDA employees except for the room that is provided to them.
This coverage provides all the free of purchase all the prescribed medical specialties merely by the physician of WAPDA Medical Complex. And in instance of non available the payment will be made by WAPDA. As private infirmaries are reasonably expensive every bit good as the medical specialties this service really carries dozenss of significance in the heads of the employees and same is what is shown in the graph as out of 30, 23 of the employees chose ‘extremely of import ‘ , six considered it ‘slightly of import ‘ and merely one chose ‘neutral ‘ . None of the respondent chose the other two options that are ‘not really of import ‘ and ‘not at all of import ‘ . Mention: Appendix: Figure 16.
WAPDA Medical Complex besides provides surgery with complete nursing in the infirmary ward ( depending on the class of the employee ) with complete medicine, intervention and attention before and after the surgery of the patient. And that excessively is wholly free of cost. The saloon chart gives me