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Women entrepreneurship in India

CHAPTER-TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW JAI BABA JI DI HAI PEER BABA, HEY LAKH DATEYA MERE TE APNI KRIPA BAKSHO, BHUL JUK MAAF KERO..JAI PEERA DI, JAI PEERA DI, JAI PEERA DI.

Introduction

Harmonizing to Mishra ( 2000 ) adult females entrepreneurship in India is increasing at a important rate. Today, adult females constitute of 10 % of the entire enterprisers and are besides doing important attempts to accomplish economic growing in the state. However, adult females in the transitional economic system are still confronting issues like inaccessibility of resources, no support from household, gender favoritism, fiscal barriers etc ( Singh, 2008 ) .

On the other manus many Indian adult females are still set abouting entrepreneurship due to factors such as increased degree of instruction, household support, aid from assorted administrations etc ( Kitching and Woldie, 2004 ) .

Therefore, the current literature available has been studied intensively to place the current position of adult females enterprisers in India, issues faced by them, the function played by authorities and assorted other establishments to back up adult females enterprisers and to happen out the factors actuating them to come in the concern universe.

WOMEN ENTREPRENURS AND SWOT ANALYSIS

Davidson and Fielden ( 2006 ) defines Indian adult females enterprisers as adult females who are capable of set uping and running an enterprise of her ain with assurance by equilibrating between her personal and professional life.

Harmonizing to Rani ( 1996 ) quality of entrepreneurship is one of the of import assets to advance entrepreneurship among adult females in India. Therefore, a SWOT analysis helps to understand better the strengths, failings, chances and menaces faced by Indian adult females enterprisers. The SWOT analysis of adult females enterprisers is depicted with the aid of Table 2

Strengths

Rao ( 2005 ) high spots that from the past many old ages the societal position of the adult females is increasing, so they have better entree to instruction than they used to hold in the past period. Therefore, it helps the adult females to set up their ain concern as they are cognizant about their rights and are confident plenty to pull off their ain topographic point in the male- dominated society. Besides, adult females are supported by their household and they can take determinations on their ain. In add-on to this, it has been observed that the employment degree of adult females in unorganised sector has later increased.

Similarly, the strength of the adult females enterpriser lies in the trueness and devotedness toward their project, support from household members and the planned attack used by them to run their concern consistently. Besides, it has been observed that the willingness of adult females to work hard is one of the most of import entrepreneurial qualities possessed by them ( Soundarapandian, 2002 ) .

Failings

Sharma ( 2007 ) stated that adult females enterprisers in India lack the ability to cipher the sum of hazard involved in the venture. Further, it has been analysed that adult females enterprisers in India lack the necessity cognition to use the available resources and information in favor of their concern venture as they do non hold autonomy. Due to the deficiency of assurance, they are unable to interact with people, which farther consequences in hapless selling of their merchandises and services. It has besides been examined that adult females give more clip and attending towards their household and concern direction is a secondary phenomenon for them. This affects the growing of their endeavor as they are non able to concentrate on running their endeavor expeditiously.

On the other manus, it has been observed that the growing of female enterprisers is hampered due to the being of gender related issues in our economic system. They experience troubles in obtaining loans, happening providers for their merchandises and services. Besides, many adult females do non acquire the fiscal and moral support from their households ; they are confined to the family jobs and are non allowed to work. Lack of instruction required for running the concern is besides the chief failing encountered by adult females enterprisers ( Rao, 2005 ) .Furthermore, It has been illustrated that adult females employees face a batch of unfavorable judgment of their work from the other members of the society which affects their attitude towards work and they lose assurance ( Rani,1996 ) .

Opportunities

Soundariapan ( 2002 ) shed the visible radiation on the increasing chance for the adult females in the field of concern. It has been observed that the issue of gender equality has been taken into consideration by the society and assorted establishments are coming frontward to forestall the gender favoritism. Besides, authorities is taking needed stairss to authorise the Indian adult females enterprisers by developing assorted policies like Equal Wages Act, increasing literacy degree among females etc which proves to be highly good for the female in the society.

Furthermore, Indian authorities is assisting the female subdivision of the society by supplying them with equal chance to work. The Indian fundamental law has made a jurisprudence to forbid the favoritism based on gender and besides formulated jurisprudence for equal wage for both work forces and adult females. Besides, authorities of India has developed a National Policy for authorization of adult females ( 2001 ) and is taking important stairss to raise the literacy degree among female subdivision of the society ( League of Nations, 2007 ) .

Menaces

As per Rani ( 1996 ) , menaces are faced by every enterpriser, be it work forces or adult females. However, adult females face major menaces from the rivals and bigger endeavors as they are relatively new participants in the market. Another menace faced by adult females is the inaccessibility of financess to put in the concern, as adult females do non hold capital of their ain required to run the endeavor successfully. They besides face the menace by the household members to go forth the concern and the work-home struggles besides affect their growing. In add-on to this deficiency of inducement on the portion of authorities and society besides poses as possible menace for adult females enterprisers as they are non able to use these policies and rights or their benefits which may ensue in failure of their concern endeavor ( Rao, 2005 ) .

Jai peera di, jai peera di, jai peera di.

PRESENT SCENARIO OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS

Harmonizing to Jalbert ( 2000 ) adult females enterprisers have wholly changed the face of concern internationally. It has been observed that tierce of the concerns in the universe are managed by adult females. Women entrepreneurs keep a dignified place in many states like USA, Holland, Sweden etc. However, in India adult females comprised of merely 16.5 % of entire work force which is considered to be excessively low harmonizing to the nose count.

Furthermore, in India the construct of females germinating as enterprisers is comparatively a recent phenomenon. In 1995-96 merely 2, 95,680 adult females worked as enterprisers, which constitute merely 11.2 % of the entire population of 2.64 million enterprisers. This is represented with the aid of Fig.1 ( Sharma and Parashar, 2008 ) .

Benson and Yukongdi ( 2006 ) highlighted that the figure of adult females enterprisers is steadily increasing in the Indian economic system. However, the presence of adult females in direction is merely 3-5 % in India compared to around 10 % globally. The presence of adult females can be seen chiefly in service sector, HR related occupations and IT Industry. On the contrary, their engagement in hard-core occupations such as selling or production is well less. Merely 2.3 % of adult females hold the stations of legislators, senior directors and functionaries in the companies. Womans in the age group of 29-59 old ages comprise of 54.9 % of the entire population but still they constitute merely 17.8 % of the entire employees in the organized sector. Therefore, it clearly indicates that adult females are non given the same precedence in work as their male- opposite numbers ( The Financial Express, 2006 ) .

On the other manus Tiwari and Tiwari ( 2007 ) highlighted that harmonizing to the nose count of 2001, the figure of adult females workers is 22.73 % of the entire on the job population ( in ball every bit good as informal sector ) . He farther indicates that adult females are now come ining different Fieldss of entrepreneurship, apart from the traditional countries of concern ( like jam devising, papad turn overing etc. ) , which is a good advancement for the development of adult females enterprisers in the state. The function of adult females in the concern universe has come into arousal after the Tenth program ( 2002-2007 ) of the authorities which planned on authorising the Indian adult females as the agents of socio-economic alteration and development. Today, adult females are come ining in many industries like cloths, technology, plastics, garment industry etc. Due to emergence of adult females in the field of entrepreneurship, there has been a considerable growing of the Indian economic system. The expression of Indian economic system has been changed by the adult females entrepreneurs, as the sum of employment and gross has increased to a great extent. Besides, the figure of endeavors run by adult females is increasing at a faster gait ( Singh, 2008 ) .

Mentions

  • Davidson, M. J. and Fielden, S. L. ( 2006 ) International Handbook of Women and Small Busimess Entrepreneurship. United Kingdom: Edwar Elgar Publishing Limited.
  • Benson, J. and Yukongdi, V. ( 2006 ) Women in Asiatic direction. Oxon: Routledge.
  • Woldie, A. and Kitching, B. M. ( 2004 )
  • Mishra, S.P. ( 2000 ) Factors Affecting Women Entrepreneurship in Small and Cottage Industries in India [ online ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/paper/fac_ind.htm # Introduction [ Accessed on 10th Feb 2010 ] .
  • Rani, D.L. ( 1996 ) Women Entrepreneurs. New Delhi: A.P.H Publishing Corporation.
  • Rao, M.K. ( 2005 ) Authorization of Women in India. New Delhi: Discovery Publishing House.
  • Soundarapandian, M. ( 2002 ) Small Scale Industries: Problems. New Delhi: Concept Printing Company.
  • Sharma, M. ( 2007 ) India ‘s Transforming Financial Sector. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers and Distributors ( P ) LTD.
  • Singh, S.P. ( 2008 ) An Insight Into the Emergence of Women-Owned Businesses As An Economic Force In India [ online ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //74.125.153.132/search? q=cache: yY3Pqj0u7fgJ: www.rbs.edu.in/delhi/articles/SPSinghWomen % 2520Entrepreneurs.doc+female+entrepreneurship+in+india & A ; cd=28 & A ; hl=en & A ; ct=clnk & A ; gl=uk [ Accessed 9th Feb 2010 ] .
  • Tiwari, A. and Tiwari, S. ( 2007 ) Women Entrepreneurship and Economic Development. New Delhi: Sarup & A ; Sons.
  • The Financial Express ( 2006 ) In hunt of equal chances [ on-line ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.financialexpress.com/news/in-search-of-equal-opportunities/92880/ [ Accessed 14th Dec 2009 ] .
  • Sharma, K.P. and Parashar, P. ( 2008 ) Entrepreneurship. New Delhi: V.K. ( India ) Enterprises.
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